Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that lives in the stomach and requires the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere or nutrient medium for its growth. The name comes from a distinguished genus of similar bacteria Helicobacter , and the word pylōri in the name is a genitive form of ” pylorus ” (pylorus, circular pulp that blocks the passage from the stomach to the duodenum), which, in turn, comes from other Greek . π υλωρός , meaning literally “gatekeeper”.
For the first time these microorganisms are mentioned in 1875 in Germany. Then, in Poland, Italy and Russia, scientists independently tried to work and study this new type of microorganism living in the gastric mucosa.
Helicobacter pylori was identified, isolated and cultivated in the early 1980s by two Australian scientists , Robin Warren, who then conducted further research with Barry Marshall.
Why is Helicobacter pylori dangerous for humans ?
Numerous studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori is present in patients with chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer – diseases that were not previously considered to be of infectious origin. It has also been linked to the development of duodenal ulcers and stomach cancer.
Helicobacter pylori harmful or beneficial ?
However, more than 80% of Helicobacter pylori carriers pylori ) does not cause disease symptoms. This gave rise to the suggestion that the bacterium may play an important role in the natural ecology of the stomach. Some experts believe that its presence in the body is necessary for the full functioning of our body. And only at the moment of reducing our immunity does the activation of Helicobacter occur as a pathogenic microorganism. The mechanisms that lead to stomach diseases are turned on. It was not for nothing that it was previously believed that stomach ulcers and gastritis worsen seasonally – in the autumn-spring period. In the fall, people often catch a cold, in the spring – a lack of vitamins often develops. So much for the seasonal decrease in immunity, which led to “exacerbations” of stomach diseases.
Helicobacter pylori is the most common bacterial infection worldwide, with more than half of the world’s population carrying this bacterium in the upper gastrointestinal tract. While the incidence is declining in Western countries (for example, in the US, 20% of the population is infected with Helicobacter pylori ), Helicobacter infection pylori is widespread in developing countries (according to various estimates, up to 80% of the population in Russia are carriers of Helicobacter pylori ). In the absence of targeted antimicrobial therapy, colonization usually lasts for decades.